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Library - Electrical System Formulae

Contents

Notation
The symbol font is used for some notation and formulae. If the Greek symbols for alpha beta delta do not
appear here [ a b d ] the symbol font needs to be installed for correct display of notation and formulae.
B
C
E
f
G
h
I
j
L
P
Q
susceptance
capacitance
voltage source
frequency
conductance
h-operator
current
j-operator
inductance
active power
reactive power
[siemens, S]
[farads, F]
[volts, V]
[hertz, Hz]
[siemens, S]
[1120]
[amps, A]
[190]
[henrys, H]
[watts, W]
[VAreactive, VArs]
Q
R
S
t
V
W
X
Y
Z
f
w
quality factor
resistance
apparent power
time
voltage drop
energy
reactance
admittance
impedance
phase angle
angular frequency
[number]
[ohms, W]
[volt-amps, VA]
[seconds, s]
[volts, V]
[joules, J]
[ohms, W]
[siemens, S]
[ohms, W]
[degrees, ]
[rad/sec]

Impedance

The impedance Z of a resistance R in series with a reactance X is:
Z = R + jX

Rectangular and polar forms of impedance Z:
Z = R + jX = (R2 + X2)tan-1(X / R) = |Z|f = |Z|cosf + j|Z|sinf

Addition of impedances Z1 and Z2:
Z1 + Z2 = (R1 + jX1) + (R2 + jX2) = (R1 + R2) + j(X1 + X2)

Subtraction of impedances Z1 and Z2:
Z1 - Z2 = (R1 + jX1) - (R2 + jX2) = (R1 - R2) + j(X1 - X2)

Multiplication of impedances Z1 and Z2:
Z1 * Z2 = |Z1|f1 * |Z2|f2 = ( |Z1| * |Z2| )(f1 + f2)

Division of impedances Z1 and Z2:
Z1 / Z2 = |Z1|f1 / |Z2|f2 = ( |Z1| / |Z2| )(f1 - f2)

In summary:
- use the rectangular form for addition and subtraction,
- use the polar form for multiplication and division.


Admittance

An impedance Z comprising a resistance R in series with a reactance X can be converted to an admittance Y comprising a conductance G in parallel with a susceptance B:
Y = Z -1 = 1 / (R + jX) = (R - jX) / (R2 + X2) = R / (R2 + X2) - jX / (R2 + X2) = G - jB
G = R / (R2 + X2) = R / |Z|2
B = X / (R2 + X2) = X / |Z|2
Using the polar form of impedance Z:
Y = 1 / |Z|f = |Z| -1-f = |Y|-f = |Y|cosf - j|Y|sinf

Conversely, an admittance Y comprising a conductance G in parallel with a susceptance B can be converted to an impedance Z comprising a resistance R in series with a reactance X:
Z = Y -1 = 1 / (G - jB) = (G + jB) / (G2 + B2) = G / (G2 + B2) + jB / (G2 + B2) = R + jX
R = G / (G2 + B2) = G / |Y|2
X = B / (G2 + B2) = B / |Y|2
Using the polar form of admittance Y:
Z = 1 / |Y|-f = |Y| -1f = |Z|f = |Z|cosf + j|Z|sinf

The total impedance ZS of impedances Z1, Z2, Z3,... connected in series is:
ZS = Z1 + Z1 + Z1 +...
The total admittance YP of admittances Y1, Y2, Y3,... connected in parallel is:
YP = Y1 + Y1 + Y1 +...

In summary:
- use impedances when operating on series circuits,
- use admittances when operating on parallel circuits.


Reactance

Inductive Reactance
The inductive reactance XL of an inductance L at angular frequency w and frequency f is:
XL = wL = 2pfL

For a sinusoidal current i of amplitude I and angular frequency w:
i = I sinwt
If sinusoidal current i is passed through an inductance L, the voltage e across the inductance is:
e = L di/dt = wLI coswt = XLI coswt

The current through an inductance lags the voltage across it by 90.

Capacitive Reactance
The capacitive reactance XC of a capacitance C at angular frequency w and frequency f is:
XC = 1 / wC = 1 / 2pfC

For a sinusoidal voltage v of amplitude V and angular frequency w:
v = V sinwt
If sinusoidal voltage v is applied across a capacitance C, the current i through the capacitance is:
i = C dv/dt = wCV coswt = V coswt / XC

The current through a capacitance leads the voltage across it by 90.


Resonance

Series Resonance
A series circuit comprising an inductance L, a resistance R and a capacitance C has an impedance ZS of:
ZS = R + j(XL - XC)
where XL = wL and XC = 1 / wC

At resonance, the imaginary part of ZS is zero:
XC = XL
ZSr = R
wr = (1 / LC) = 2pfr
The quality factor at resonance Qr is:
Qr = wrL / R = (L / CR2) = (1 / R )(L / C) = 1 / wrCR

Parallel resonance
A parallel circuit comprising an inductance L with a series resistance R, connected in parallel with a capacitance C, has an admittance YP of:
YP = 1 / (R + jXL) + 1 / (- jXC) = (R / (R2 + XL2)) - j(XL / (R2 + XL2) - 1 / XC)
where XL = wL and XC = 1 / wC

At resonance, the imaginary part of YP is zero:
XC = (R2 + XL2) / XL = XL + R2 / XL = XL(1 + R2 / XL2)
ZPr = YPr-1 = (R2 + XL2) / R = XLXC / R = L / CR
wr = (1 / LC - R2 / L2) = 2pfr
The quality factor at resonance Qr is:
Qr = wrL / R = (L / CR2 - 1) = (1 / R )(L / C - R2)

Note that for the same values of L, R and C, the parallel resonance frequency is lower than the series resonance frequency, but if the ratio R / L is small then the parallel resonance frequency is close to the series resonance frequency.


Reactive Loads and Power Factor

Resistance and Series Reactance
The impedance Z of a reactive load comprising resistance R and series reactance X is:
Z = R + jX = |Z|f
Converting to the equivalent admittance Y:
Y = 1 / Z = 1 / (R + jX) = (R - jX) / (R2 + X2) = R / |Z|2 - jX / |Z|2

When a voltage V (taken as reference) is applied across the reactive load Z, the current I is:
I = VY = V(R / |Z|2 - jX / |Z|2) = VR / |Z|2 - jVX / |Z|2 = IP - jIQ
The active current IP and the reactive current IQ are:
IP = VR / |Z|2 = |I|cosf
IQ = VX / |Z|2 = |I|sinf

The apparent power S, active power P and reactive power Q are:
S = V|I| = V2 / |Z| = |I|2|Z|
P = VIP = IP2|Z|2 / R = V2R / |Z|2 = |I|2R
Q = VIQ = IQ2|Z|2 / X = V2X / |Z|2 = |I|2X

The power factor cosf and reactive factor sinf are:
cosf = IP / |I| = P / S = R / |Z|
sinf = IQ / |I| = Q / S = X / |Z|

Resistance and Shunt Reactance
The impedance Z of a reactive load comprising resistance R and shunt reactance X is found from:
1 / Z = 1 / R + 1 / jX
Converting to the equivalent admittance Y comprising conductance G and shunt susceptance B:
Y = 1 / Z = 1 / R - j / X = G - jB = |Y|-f

When a voltage V (taken as reference) is applied across the reactive load Y, the current I is:
I = VY = V(G - jB) = VG - jVB = IP - jIQ
The active current IP and the reactive current IQ are:
IP = VG = V / R = |I|cosf
IQ = VB = V / X = |I|sinf

The apparent power S, active power P and reactive power Q are:
S = V|I| = |I|2 / |Y| = V2|Y|
P = VIP = IP2 / G = |I|2G / |Y|2 = V2G
Q = VIQ = IQ2 / B = |I|2B / |Y|2 = V2B

The power factor cosf and reactive factor sinf are:
cosf = IP / |I| = P / S = G / |Y|
sinf = IQ / |I| = Q / S = B / |Y|


Complex Power

When a voltage V causes a current I to flow through a reactive load Z, the complex power S is:
S = VI*   where I* is the conjugate of the complex current I.

Inductive Load
Z = R + jXL
I = IP - jIQ
cosf = R / |Z| (lagging)
I* = IP + jIQ
S = P + jQ
An inductive load is a sink of lagging VArs (a source of leading VArs).

Capacitive Load
Z = R - jXC
I = IP + jIQ
cosf = R / |Z| (leading)
I* = IP - jIQ
S = P - jQ
A capacitive load is a source of lagging VArs (a sink of leading VArs).


Three Phase Power

For a balanced star connected load with line voltage Vline and line current Iline:
Vstar = Vline / 3
Istar = Iline
Zstar = Vstar / Istar = Vline / 3Iline
Sstar = 3VstarIstar = 3VlineIline = Vline2 / Zstar = 3Iline2Zstar

For a balanced delta connected load with line voltage Vline and line current Iline:
Vdelta = Vline
Idelta = Iline / 3
Zdelta = Vdelta / Idelta = 3Vline / Iline
Sdelta = 3VdeltaIdelta = 3VlineIline = 3Vline2 / Zdelta = Iline2Zdelta

The apparent power S, active power P and reactive power Q are related by:
S2 = P2 + Q2
P = Scosf
Q = Ssinf
where cosf is the power factor and sinf is the reactive factor

Note that for equivalence between balanced star and delta connected loads:
Zdelta = 3Zstar


Per-unit System

For each system parameter, per-unit value is equal to the actual value divided by a base value:
Epu = E / Ebase
Ipu = I / Ibase
Zpu = Z / Zbase

Select rated values as base values, usually rated power in MVA and rated phase voltage in kV:
Sbase = Srated = 3ElineIline
Ebase = Ephase = Eline/ 3

The base values for line current in kA and per-phase star impedance in ohms/phase are:
Ibase = Sbase / 3Ebase ( = Sbase / 3Eline)
Zbase = Ebase / Ibase = 3Ebase2 / Sbase ( = Eline2 / Sbase)

Note that selecting the base values for any two of Sbase, Ebase, Ibase or Zbase fixes the base values of all four. Note also that Ohm's Law is satisfied by each of the sets of actual, base and per-unit values for voltage, current and impedance.

Transformers
The primary and secondary MVA ratings of a transformer are equal, but the voltages and currents in the primary (subscript 1) and the secondary (subscript 2) are usually different:
3E1lineI1line = S = 3E2lineI2line

Converting to base (per-phase star) values:
3E1baseI1base = Sbase = 3E2baseI2base
E1base / E2base = I2base / I1base
Z1base / Z2base = (E1base / E2base)2

The impedance Z21pu referred to the primary side, equivalent to an impedance Z2pu on the secondary side, is:
Z21pu = Z2pu(E1base / E2base)2

The impedance Z12pu referred to the secondary side, equivalent to an impedance Z1pu on the primary side, is:
Z12pu = Z1pu(E2base / E1base)2

Note that per-unit and percentage values are related by:
Zpu = Z% / 100


Symmetrical Components

In any three phase system, the line currents Ia, Ib and Ic may be expressed as the phasor sum of:
- a set of balanced positive phase sequence currents Ia1, Ib1 and Ic1 (phase sequence a-b-c),
- a set of balanced negative phase sequence currents Ia2, Ib2 and Ic2 (phase sequence a-c-b),
- a set of identical zero phase sequence currents Ia0, Ib0 and Ic0 (cophasal, no phase sequence).

The positive, negative and zero sequence currents are calculated from the line currents using:
Ia1 = (Ia + hIb + h2Ic) / 3
Ia2 = (Ia + h2Ib + hIc) / 3
Ia0 = (Ia + Ib + Ic) / 3

The positive, negative and zero sequence currents are combined to give the line currents using:
Ia = Ia1 + Ia2 + Ia0
Ib = Ib1 + Ib2 + Ib0 = h2Ia1 + hIa2 + Ia0
Ic = Ic1 + Ic2 + Ic0 = hIa1 + h2Ia2 + Ia0

The residual current Ir is equal to the total zero sequence current:
Ir = Ia0 + Ib0 + Ic0 = 3Ia0 = Ia + Ib + Ic = Ie
which is measured using three current transformers with parallel connected secondaries.
Ie is the earth fault current of the system.

Similarly, for phase-to-earth voltages Vae, Vbe and Vce, the residual voltage Vr is equal to the total zero sequence voltage:
Vr = Va0 + Vb0 + Vc0 = 3Va0 = Vae + Vbe + Vce = 3Vne
which is measured using an earthed-star / open-delta connected voltage transformer.
Vne is the neutral displacement voltage of the system.

The h-operator
The h-operator (1120) is the complex cube root of unity:
h = - 1 / 2 + j3 / 2 = 1120 = 1-240
h2 = - 1 / 2 - j3 / 2 = 1240 = 1-120

Some useful properties of h are:
1 + h + h2 = 0
h + h2 = - 1 = 1180
h - h2 = j3 = 390
h2 - h = - j3 = 3-90


Fault Calculations

The different types of short-circuit fault which occur on a power system are:
- single phase to earth,
- double phase,
- double phase to earth,
- three phase,
- three phase to earth.

For each type of short-circuit fault occurring on an unloaded system:
- the first column states the phase voltage and line current conditions at the fault,
- the second column states the phase 'a' sequence current and voltage conditions at the fault,
- the third column provides formulae for the phase 'a' sequence currents at the fault,
- the fourth column provides formulae for the fault current and the resulting line currents.
By convention, the faulted phases are selected for fault symmetry with respect to reference phase 'a'.

I f = fault current
Ie = earth fault current
Ea = normal phase voltage at the fault location
Z1 = positive phase sequence network impedance to the fault
Z2 = negative phase sequence network impedance to the fault
Z0 = zero phase sequence network impedance to the fault

Single phase to earth - fault from phase 'a' to earth:
Va = 0
Ib = Ic = 0
I f = Ia = Ie
Ia1 = Ia2 = Ia0 = Ia / 3
Va1 + Va2 + Va0 = 0
  
Ia1 = Ea / (Z1 + Z2 + Z0)
Ia2 = Ia1
Ia0 = Ia1
I f = 3Ia0 = 3Ea / (Z1 + Z2 + Z0) = Ie
Ia = I f = 3Ea / (Z1 + Z2 + Z0)
  

Double phase - fault from phase 'b' to phase 'c':
Vb = Vc
Ia = 0
I f = Ib = - Ic
Ia1 + Ia2 = 0
Ia0 = 0
Va1 = Va2
Ia1 = Ea / (Z1 + Z2)
Ia2 = - Ia1
Ia0 = 0
I f = - j3Ia1 = - j3Ea / (Z1 + Z2)
Ib = I f = - j3Ea / (Z1 + Z2)
Ic = - I f = j3Ea / (Z1 + Z2)

Double phase to earth - fault from phase 'b' to phase 'c' to earth:
Vb = Vc = 0
Ia = 0
I f = Ib + Ic = Ie
Ia1 + Ia2 + Ia0 = 0
Va1 = Va2 = Va0
  
Ia1 = Ea / Znet
Ia2 = - Ia1Z0 / (Z2 + Z0)
Ia0 = - Ia1Z2 / (Z2 + Z0)
I f = 3Ia0 = - 3EaZ2 / Szz = Ie
Ib = I f / 2 - j3Ea(Z2 / 2 + Z0) / Szz
Ic = I f / 2 + j3Ea(Z2 / 2 + Z0) / Szz
  Znet = Z1 + Z2Z0 / (Z2 + Z0)   and   Szz = Z1Z2 + Z2Z0 + Z0Z1 = (Z2 + Z0)Znet

Three phase (and three phase to earth) - fault from phase 'a' to phase 'b' to phase 'c' (to earth):
Va = Vb = Vc (= 0)
Ia + Ib + Ic = 0 (= Ie)
I f = Ia = hIb = h2Ic
Va0 = Va (= 0)
Va1 = Va2 = 0
  
Ia1 = Ea / Z1
Ia2 = 0
Ia0 = 0
I f = Ia1 = Ea / Z1 = Ia
Ib = Eb / Z1
Ic = Ec / Z1

The values of Z1, Z2 and Z0 are each determined from the respective positive, negative and zero sequence impedance networks by network reduction to a single impedance.

Note that the single phase fault current is greater than the three phase fault current if Z0 is less than (2Z1 - Z2).

Note also that if the system is earthed through an impedance Zn (carrying current 3I0) then an impedance 3Zn (carrying current I0) must be included in the zero sequence impedance network.


Three Phase Fault Level

The symmetrical three phase short-circuit current Isc of a power system with no-load line and phase voltages Eline and Ephase and source impedance ZS per-phase star is:
Isc = Ephase / ZS = Eline / 3ZS

The three phase fault level Ssc of the power system is:
Ssc = 3Isc2ZS = 3EphaseIsc = 3Ephase2 / ZS = Eline2 / ZS

Note that if the X / R ratio of the source impedance ZS (comprising resistance RS and reactance XS) is sufficiently large, then ZS XS.

Transformers
If a transformer of rating ST (taken as base) and per-unit impedance ZTpu is fed from a source with unlimited fault level (infinite busbars), then the per-unit secondary short-circuit current I2pu and fault level S2pu are:
I2pu = E2pu / ZTpu = 1.0 / ZTpu
S2pu = I2pu = 1.0 / ZTpu

If the source fault level is limited to SS by per-unit source impedance ZSpu (to the same base as ZTpu), then the secondary short-circuit current I2pu and fault level S2pu are reduced to:
I2pu = E2pu / (ZTpu + ZSpu) = 1.0 / (ZTpu + ZSpu)
S2pu = I2pu = 1.0 / (ZTpu + ZSpu)
where ZSpu = ST / SS


Thermal Short-time Rating

If a conductor which is rated to carry full load current Iload continuously is rated to carry a maximum fault current Ilimit for a time tlimit, then a lower fault current Ifault can be carried for a longer time tfault according to:
( Ilimit - Iload )2 tlimit = ( Ifault - Iload )2 tfault

Rearranging for Ifault and tfault:
Ifault = ( Ilimit - Iload ) ( tlimit / tfault ) + Iload
tfault = tlimit ( Ilimit - Iload )2 / ( Ifault - Iload )2

If Iload is small compared with Ilimit and Ifault, then:
Ilimit2 tlimit Ifault2 tfault
Ifault Ilimit ( tlimit / tfault )
tfault tlimit ( Ilimit / Ifault )2

Note that if the current Ifault is reduced by a factor of two, then the time tfault is increased by a factor of four.


Instrument Transformers

Voltage Transformer
For a voltage transformer of voltampere rating S, rated primary voltage VP and rated secondary voltage VS, the maximum secondary current ISmax, maximum secondary burden conductance GBmax and maximum primary current IPmax are:
ISmax = S / VS
GBmax = ISmax / VS = S / VS2
IPmax = S / VP = ISmaxVS / VP

Current Transformer
For a measurement current transformer of voltampere rating S, rated primary current IP and rated secondary current IS, the maximum secondary voltage VSmax, maximum secondary burden resistance RBmax and maximum primary voltage VPmax are:
VSmax = S / IS
RBmax = VSmax / IS = S / IS2
VPmax = S / IP = VSmaxIS / IP

For a protection current transformer of voltampere rating S, rated primary current IP, rated secondary current IS and rated accuracy limit factor F, the rated secondary reference voltage VSF, maximum secondary burden resistance RBmax and equivalent primary reference voltage VPF are:
VSF = SF / IS
RBmax = VSF / ISF = S / IS2
VPF = SF / IP = VSFIS / IP

Impedance Measurement
If the primary voltage Vpri and the primary current Ipri are measured at a point in a system, then the primary impedance Zpri at that point is:
Zpri = Vpri / Ipri

If the measured voltage is the secondary voltage Vsec of a voltage transformer of primary/secondary ratio NV and the measured current is the secondary current Isec of a current transformer of primary/secondary ratio NI, then the primary impedance Zpri is related to the secondary impedance Zsec by:
Zpri = Vpri / Ipri = VsecNV / IsecNI = ZsecNV / NI = ZsecNZ
where NZ = NV / NI

If the no-load (source) voltage Epri is also measured at the point, then the source impedance ZTpri to the point is:
ZTpri = (Epri - Vpri) / Ipri = (Esec - Vsec)NV / IsecNI = ZTsecNV / NI = ZTsecNZ


Power Factor Correction

If an inductive load with an active power demand P has an uncorrected power factor of cosf1 lagging, and is required to have a corrected power factor of cosf2 lagging, the uncorrected and corrected reactive power demands, Q1 and Q2, are:
Q1 = P tanf1
Q2 = P tanf2
where tanfn = (1 / cos2fn - 1)

The leading (capacitive) reactive power demand QC which must be connected across the load is:
QC = Q1 - Q2 = P (tanf1 - tanf2)

The uncorrected and corrected apparent power demands, S1 and S2, are related by:
S1cosf1 = P = S2cosf2
Comparing corrected and uncorrected load currents and apparent power demands:
I2 / I1 = S2 / S1 = cosf1 / cosf2

If the load is required to have a corrected power factor of unity, Q2 is zero and:
QC = Q1 = P tanf1
I2 / I1 = S2 / S1 = cosf1 = P / S1

Shunt Capacitors
For star-connected shunt capacitors each of capacitance Cstar on a three phase system of line voltage Vline and frequency f, the leading reactive power demand QCstar and the leading reactive line current Iline are:
QCstar = Vline2 / XCstar = 2pfCstarVline2
Iline = QCstar / 3Vline = Vline / 3XCstar
Cstar = QCstar / 2pfVline2

For delta-connected shunt capacitors each of capacitance Cdelta on a three phase system of line voltage Vline and frequency f, the leading reactive power demand QCdelta and the leading reactive line current Iline are:
QCdelta = 3Vline2 / XCdelta = 6pfCdeltaVline2
Iline = QCdelta / 3Vline = 3Vline / XCdelta
Cdelta = QCdelta / 6pfVline2

Note that for the same leading reactive power QC:
XCdelta = 3XCstar
Cdelta = Cstar / 3

Series Capacitors
For series line capacitors each of capacitance Cseries carrying line current Iline on a three phase system of frequency f, the voltage drop Vdrop across each line capacitor and the total leading reactive power demand QCseries of the set of three line capacitors are:
Vdrop = IlineXCseries = Iline / 2pfCseries
QCseries = 3Vdrop2 / XCseries = 3VdropIline = 3Iline2XCseries = 3Iline2 / 2pfCseries
Cseries = 3Iline2 / 2pfQCseries

Note that the apparent power rating Srating of the set of three series line capacitors is based on the line voltage Vline and not the voltage drop Vdrop:
Srating = 3VlineIline


Reactors

Shunt Reactors
For star-connected shunt reactors each of inductance Lstar on a three phase system of line voltage Vline and frequency f, the lagging reactive power demand QLstar and the lagging reactive line current Iline are:
QLstar = Vline2 / XLstar = Vline2 / 2pfLstar
Iline = QLstar / 3Vline = Vline / 3XLstar
Lstar = Vline2 / 2pfQLstar

For delta-connected shunt reactors each of inductance Ldelta on a three phase system of line voltage Vline and frequency f, the lagging reactive power demand QLdelta and the lagging reactive line current Iline are:
QLdelta = 3Vline2 / XLdelta = 3Vline2 / 2pfLdelta
Iline = QLdelta / 3Vline = 3Vline / XLdelta
Ldelta = 3Vline2 / 2pfQLdelta

Note that for the same lagging reactive power QL:
XLdelta = 3XLstar
Ldelta = 3Lstar

Series Reactors
For series line reactors each of inductance Lseries carrying line current Iline on a three phase system of frequency f, the voltage drop Vdrop across each line reactor and the total lagging reactive power demand QLseries of the set of three line reactors are:
Vdrop = IlineXLseries = 2pfLseriesIline
QLseries = 3Vdrop2 / XLseries = 3VdropIline = 3Iline2XLseries = 6pfLseriesIline2
Lseries = QLseries / 6pfIline2

Note that the apparent power rating Srating of the set of three series line reactors is based on the line voltage Vline and not the voltage drop Vdrop:
Srating = 3VlineIline


Harmonic Resonance

If a node in a power system operating at frequency f has a inductive source reactance XL per phase and has power factor correction with a capacitive reactance XC per phase, the source inductance L and the correction capacitance C are:
L = XL / w
C = 1 / wXC
where w = 2pf

The series resonance angular frequency wr of an inductance L with a capacitance C is:
wr = (1 / LC) = w(XC / XL)

The three phase fault level Ssc at the node for no-load phase voltage E and source impedance Z per-phase star is:
Ssc = 3E2 / |Z| = 3E2 / |R + jXL|
If the ratio XL / R of the source impedance Z is sufficiently large, |Z| XL so that:
Ssc 3E2 / XL

The reactive power rating QC of the power factor correction capacitors for a capacitive reactance XC per phase at phase voltage E is:
QC = 3E2 / XC

The harmonic number fr / f of the series resonance of XL with XC is:
fr / f = wr / w = (XC / XL) (Ssc / QC)

Note that the ratio XL / XC which results in a harmonic number fr / f is:
XL / XC = 1 / ( fr / f )2
so for fr / f to be equal to the geometric mean of the third and fifth harmonics:
fr / f = 15 = 3.873
XL / XC = 1 / 15 = 0.067


Updated 09 June 2008
Copyright 1998-2008 BOWest Pty Ltd
All content subject to disclaimer and copyright notices
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